Several years ago, Sun came up with a technology called Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). Because of their marketing clout (they own the Java language), for a while you could harldy get a job as a Java programmer without EJB on your resume. I know; I was job hunting at the time. The problem was, rather than making your life easier, EJB made you describe, in triplicate, the data you were trying to pass around. It took someone writing a book about how EJB is a bloated mess for developers to come to their senses and revolt.
A programming framework is supposed to make your life as a programmer easier. If you find it’s making your life harder, you shouldn’t use it. In fact, it should be more than a little helpful, since it must overcome the cost of learning the framework, installing it, and staying on top of its bugs and security holes.
Perhaps the best rule of thumb is the DRY principle: Don’t Repeat Yourself. EJB was a terrible violation of DRY. Not only did you have to write three classes to define one “bean” of data, you also had to run an extra program to generate additional classes and description files.
About the same time that EJB was all the rage, I learned about a new framework called Struts from a job interview. Struts is supposed to make web forms easier to write, and it has a lot going for it. These days, Sun has cloned Struts with something called Java Server Pages, or JSF. Struts got it wrong, although they eventually started to improve. JSF is just as wrong.
It handles data entered from web forms, keeps track of data validation problems, and perhaps most important, refills the form so that every little error doesn’t force the user to re-enter everything. This sort of stuff is a real pain to program, but very important. It’s not uncommon to have a form online that asks for your name, address, email address, phone number, and a zillion other details, all of which must be valid before you can proceed. If every time you forget to put in a required field you have to re-enter everything, you’re likely to give up pretty quickly.
My honeymoon with Struts ended when I realized that, to keep track of what was happening on my web pages, I had to keep track of Struts, JSP (the Java technology Struts lives on), Servlets (the technology underlying JSP), Tomcat (the program which runs the servlets), and all of the HTML/HTTP stuff that comprises the web. And a bug on your web page could be caused by any of these, or by a weird interaction between any of them.
Struts violates the DRY principle. You start out with a web form. You need a Java class (a “bean”) which describes the data in the form. If the bean isn’t the same as the Java class you ultimately want to populate (and it usually isn’t), you’ve just repeated yourself three times: the form, the bean, and the target class. And on top of that, you need to write an XML file which maps from the name of the form bean Java class and the name of the form bean that you use on your web pages.
The thing you want to do from a DRY perspective is to write one java class, and have a little JSP tag that says “here’s my data, generate a form.” In reality, that’s usually not what you want, since your Java class may have lots of interal-use-only fields that you don’t want just anyone to modify. And a particular web page often has a particular look that an auto-generated form wouldn’t match. So it is necessary to repeat yourself, if only to mention which fields go where on the web page.
I ultimately gave up on Struts because VocaLabs does a lot of surveys. Every survey has a different set of questions, so you really do need the entire form to be auto-generated. Struts ultimately introduced something called a DynaActionBean, which allows you to define your form data in the XML file, rather than writing custom code. Even so, the fields are fixed, so it wouldn’t work for surveys. As far as I know Java Server Faces still doesn’t have this feature.
So today I decided to give Java Server Faces a look, since I’m working on something similar to the problem JSF is supposed to solve. Earlier this month I finished writing an internal utility which allows us to edit all the data in our database through web forms. It was surprisingly easy, considering we have 72 tables spread across two databases. The utility lets us avoid editing the database directly, thus enforcing the rules that are defined in our Java classes. And every field in the web form is cross-referenced against documentation gleaned from our source code, so when our system administrator (or–worse– our CEO) pokes at things, he can see the trouble he’s getting into.
Today I’m writing a web form so that our clients can change their account information. I can’t just give them access to our internal utility, but I’d like to leverage the work I did on it. JSF, as I mentioned, is completely the wrong tool. And I realized what the right tool is.
The right approach
To fill in a web form, Java already has some conversion routines to, for example, turn the string “123” into an integer. What I’m working on builds on those conversion routines. To put it simply, I work on a field-by-field basis, not a form-by-form basis. Each conversion class generates the HTML for its part of the form, and knows how to convert that back into the appropriate data type. The conversion classes are easy to write, so that special cases are easy to handle. When I write the code to generate the web page, I tell it where the data comes from, and it does all the rest. Rather than having special “beans” to remember what the web form looks like, when the form is submitted it works straight from the HTTP request.
Remarkably, writing my own custom framework that does the right thing should take less time than reading the documentation for JSF.